Research bibliography


A    back

Adams, C.C. (1912) “Maps and Map-Making” Bulletin of the American Geographical Society 44 (3) pp.194–201

Adams, T.A. and Rhind, D. (1981) “The Projected Characteristics of a National Topographic Digital Databank” The Geographical Journal 147 (1) pp.38–53

Akerman, J. (1993) “Blazing a Well Worn Path: Cartographic Commercialism, Highway Promotion and Automobile Tourism in the United States, 1880–1930” Cartographica Monograph 44 pp.10–20

Anderson, J.R., Hardy, E.E., Roach, J.T. and Witmer, R.E. (1976) “A Land Use and Land Cover Classification System for Use with Remote Sensor Data” US Geological Survey Professional Papers 964

Andrews, M. (1989) The Search for the Picturesque: Landscape Aesthetics and Tourism in Britain, 1760–1800 Aldershot: Scolar Press

Andrews, J.H. (1990) “Map and Language: A Metaphor Extended” Cartographica 27 (1) pp.1–19

Andrews, M. (1999) Landscape and Western Art Oxford: Oxford University Press

Appleton, J. (1975) The Experience of Landscape London: John Wiley & Sons

Arnberger, E. (1974) “Problems of an International Standardization of a Means of Communication through Cartographic Symbols” International Yearbook of Cartography 16 pp.19–35

Ascher, M. (1995) “Models and Maps from the Marshall Islands: A Case in Ethnomathematics” Historia Mathematica 22 (4) pp.347–370

Axelsen, B. and Jones, M. (1987) “Are All Maps Mental Maps?” GeoJournal 14 (4) pp.447–464

Aziz, B.N. (1978) “Maps and the Mind” Human Nature 1 (8) pp.50–59

B    back

Baker, M. (1888) “Surveys, Their Kinds and Purposes” Science 12 (304) pp.254–259

Balasubramanyan, V. (1971) “Application of Information Theory to Maps” International Yearbook of Cartography 11 pp.177–181

Bassett, T.J. (1994) “Cartography and Empire Building in Nineteenth-Century West Africa” Geographical Review 84 (3) pp.316–335

Beighton, H. (1739) “A New Plotting-Table for Taking Plans and Maps, in Surveying: Invented in the Year 1721” Philosophical Transactions (1683–1775) 41 pp.747–761

Belyea, B. (1992) “Images of Power: Derrida/Foucault/Harley” Cartographica 29 (2) pp.1–9

Berger, A. (1976). Die Darstellung der Straßen in topographischen Karten Westeuropas. AVN, 83(2), 47–58.

Berljant (2002). Kartographie. Moscow: Aspekt Press.

Bertin, J. (1967) Sémiologie Graphique Paris: Gautier-Villars

Bertin, J. (1972) “Les Constantes de la Cartographie” International Yearbook of Cartography 12 pp.182–188

Bickmore, D.P. (1961) “International Cartography: Some Comparisons” The Geographical Journal 127 (3) pp.380–382

Biggs, M. (1999) “Putting the State on the Map: Cartography, Territory, and European State Formation” Comparative Studies in Society and History 41 (2) pp.374–405

Birch, T.W. (1964) Maps: Topographical and Statistical (2nd ed.) Oxford: Oxford University Press

Blades, M. and Spencer, C. (1986) “Map Use by Young Children” Geography 71 (1) pp.47–52

Blades, M., Blaut, J.M., Darvizeh, Z., Elguea, S., Sowden, S., Soni, D., Spencer, C., Stea, D., Surajpaul, R. and Uttal, D. (1998) “A Cross-Cultural Study of Young Children’s Mapping Abilities” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (New Series) 23 (2) pp.269–277

Blakemore, M. (1981) “From Way-Finding to Map-Making: the Spatial Information Fields of Aboriginal Peoples” Progress in Human Geography 5 (1) pp.1–24

Bloom, W. (1990) Personal Identity, National Identity and International Relations Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Board, C. (1967) Maps as Models In Chorley, R.J. and Haggett, P. (Eds.) Models in Geography London: Methuen

Board, C. and Taylor, R.M. (1977) “Perception and Maps: Human Factors in Map Design and Interpretation” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (New Series) 2 (1) pp.19–36

Board, C. (1981) “Cartographic Communication” Cartographica Monograph 27 pp.42–78

Bogdan, C. (2002) The Semiotics of Visual Languages Boulder: East European Monographs

Böhme, R. (1989) Inventory of World Topographic Mapping, Volume 1: Western Europe, North America and Australasia Barking: Elsevier Science Publishers

Böhme, R. (1991) Inventory of World Topographic Mapping, Volume 2: South America, Central America and Africa Barking: Elsevier Science Publishers

Böhme, R. (1993) Inventory of World Topographic Mapping, Volume 3: Eastern Europe, Asia, Oceania and Antarctica Oxford: Elsevier Science Publishers

Boswell, D. and Evans, J. (Eds.) (1999) Representing the Nation: A Reader London: Routledge

Bourassa, S.C. (1991) The Aesthetics of Landscape London: Belhaven Press

Bowie, W. (1936) “The National Mapping Plan of the National Resources Board” Science (New Series) 83 (2144) pp.94–95

Brady, E. (1998) “Imagination and the Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature” The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 56 (2) pp.139–147

Brüggemann, H., Oster, M. (2006). Die amtliche topographische Kartographie in Europa – Chancen für ein neues Zusammenwachsen? Kartographische Nachrichten, 56(2), 59–66

Bunce, M. (1994) The Countryside Ideal: Anglo-American Images of Landscape London: Routledge

Bunkše, E.V. (1999) “Reality of Rural Landscape Symbolism in the Formation of a Post-Soviet, Postmodern Latvian Identity” Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift 53 (2/3) pp.121–138

C    back

Cassettari, S. (1989) “Scaling the Heights” The Geographical Magazine 61 (8) pp.34–37

Casti, E. (2005) “Towards a Theory of Interpretation: Cartographic Semiosis” Cartographica 40 (3) pp.1–16

Chandler, D. (2002) Semiotics: The Basics London: Routledge

Chen, C. (1978) “The Historical Development of Cartography in China” Progress in Human Geography 2 (1) pp.101–120

Clark, K. (1976) Landscape into Art (2nd ed.) New York: Harper & Row

Clifford, S. and King, A. (Eds.) (1996) From Place to PLACE: Maps and Parish Maps London: Common Ground

Close, C. (1969) The Early Years of the Ordnance Survey New York: Augustus Kelley

Collier, P., Fontana, D., Pearson, A. and Ryder, A. (1996) “The State of Mapping in the Former Satellite Countries of Eastern Europe” The Cartographic Journal 33 (2) pp.131–139

Collier, P., Pearson, A. and Forrest, D. (1998) “The Representation of Topographic Information on Maps: Vegetation and Rural Land Use” The Cartographic Journal 35 (2) pp.191–197

Collier, P., Pearson, A., Fontana, D. and Ryder, A. (1998) “The State of Mapping in the European Republics of the Former Soviet Union” The Cartographic Journal 35 (2) pp.165–168

Collier, P., Forrest, D. and Pearson, A. (2003) “The Representation of Topographic Information on Maps: The Depiction of Relief” The Cartographic Journal 40 (1) pp.17–26

Collinson, A. (1997) “Virtual Worlds” The Cartographic Journal 34 (2) pp.117–124

Cornell, S. (1983) Art: A History of Changing Style Oxford: Phaidon

Cosgrove, D.E. (1985) “Prospect, Perspective and the Evolution of the Landscape Idea” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (New Series) 10 (1) pp.45–62

Cosgrove, D.E. and Daniels, S. (Eds.) (1988) The Iconography of Landscape: Essays on the Symbolic Representation, Design and Use of Past Environments Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Cosgrove, D.E. (1989) “A Terrain of Metaphor: Cultural Geography 1988–89” Progress in Human Geography 13 (4) pp.566–575

Cosgrove, D.E., Roscoe, B. and Rycroft, S. (1995) “Landscape and Identity at Ladybower Reservoir and Rutland Water” Transcriptions of the Institute of British Geographers 21 pp.534–551

Cosgrove, D.E. (1998) Cultural Landscapes In Unwin, T. (Ed.) A European Geography Harlow: Longman

Cosgrove, D.E. (Ed.) (1999) Mappings London: Reaktion Books

Cosgrove, D.E. (2005) “Maps, Mapping, Modernity: Art and Cartography in the Twentieth Century” Imago Mundi 57 (1) pp.35–54

Cosgrove, D. (2007) “Epistemology, Geography, and Cartography: Matthew Edney on Brian Harley’s Cartographic Theories” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 97 (1) pp.202–209

Crampton, J.W. (2001) “Maps as Social Constructions: Power, Communication and Visualization” Progress in Human Geography 25 (2) pp.235–252

Crone, G.R. (1962) “The Future of the International Million Map of the World” The Geographical Journal 128 (1) pp.36–38

Crone, G.R. (1978) Maps and Their Makers (5th ed.) Folkestone: William Dawson & Son

Crouch, D. and Matless, D. (1996) “Refiguring Geography: Parish Maps of Common Ground” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (New Series) 21 pp.236–255

D    back

Davies, J. (2005) “Uncle Joe Knew Where You Lived: The Story of Soviet Mapping of Britain (Part I)” Sheetlines 72 pp.26–38

Davies, J. (2005) “Uncle Joe Knew Where You Lived: The Story of Soviet Mapping of Britain (Part II)” Sheetlines 73 pp.6–20

Delano-Smith, C. (1985) “Cartographic Signs on European Maps and Their Explanation Before 1700” Imago Mundi 37 pp.9–29

Dent, B.D. (1972) “Visual Organization and Thematic Map Communication” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 62 (1) pp.79–93

Department of Defense (1992) “Military Specification MIL-D-89009: Digital Chart of the World (DCW)” Available at: (Accessed 22nd November 2006)

Department of the Army (1958) Technical Manual TM 30-548: Soviet Topographic Map Symbols Washington: United States War Office

Department of the Army (1963) Technical Manual TM 5-248: Foreign Maps Washington: United States War Office

Dick, R.G. (1954) “The Romance of Map Making” New Zealand Geographical Society Record 17 pp.9–10

Dieffenbach, E. (1848) “The Study of Ethnology” Journal of the Ethnological Society of London 1 pp.15–26

Dodds, J.S. (1930) “The Government Mapping Program in a Map-Minded Age” Science (New Series) 71 (1845) pp.471–474

Doherty, G.M. (2004) The Irish Ordnance Survey: History, Culture and Memory Dublin: Four Courts Press

Dorling, D. and Fairbairn, D. (1997) Mapping: Ways of Representing the World Harlow: Longman

Dostal, W. (1984) “Toward Ethnographic Cartography: A Case Study” Current Anthropology 25 (3) pp.340-344

Drewitt, B. (1973) “The Changing Profile of the Map User in Great Britain” The Cartographic Journal 10 (1) pp.42–48

E    back

East View Cartographic (2003) Terrain Analysis of Afghanistan Minneapolis: East View Cartographic

East View Cartographic (2005) Russian Military Mapping: A Guide to Using the Most Comprehensive Source of Global Geospatial Intelligence (trans. Gallagher, P.) Minneapolis: East View Cartographic

Eckert, M. (1908) “On the Nature of Maps and Map Logic” (trans. Joerg, W.) Bulletin of the American Geographical Society 40 (6) pp.344–351

Ekman, G., Lindman, R. and William-Olsson, W. (1963) “A Psychophysical Study of Cartographic Symbols” Geografiska Annaler 45 (4) pp.262–271

van Elzakker, C.P.J.M. (2004) “The Use of Maps in the Exploration of Geographical Data” Netherlands Geographical Studies 326

Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) Europe (2005) “GIS for National Mapping Agencies: ESRI GIS Technology in Europe”: Rotterdam

Ertl, R. (1987). Vergleich der Zeichenschlüssel amtlicher europäischer Kartenwerke des Maßstabes 1:50000 – eine Aktualitätsprüfung. Diplomarbeit, Wien

F    back

Feldmann, H. –U, Kreiter, N. (2006a). Neuaufbau der schweizerischen Landeskarte: Inhalt und Kartengrafik. Kartographische Nachrichten, 56(3), 115–121.

Feldmann, H. –U, Kreiter, N. (2006b). Zur Situation der amtlichen Kartografie in der Schweiz. Kartographische Nachrichten, 56(5), 243–254.

Flemer, J.A. (1895) “Topographic Methods” Science (New Series) 2 (27) pp.15–17

Fordham, H.G. (1921) Maps, Their History, Characteristics, and Uses Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Forrest, D., Pearson, A. and Collier, P. (1996) “The Representation of Topographic Information on Maps – A New Series” The Cartographic Journal 33 (1) pp.57–58

Forrest, D., Pearson, A. and Collier, P. (1997) “The Representation of Topographic Information on Maps – The Coastal Environment” The Cartographic Journal 34 (2) pp.77–85

Forrest, D. and Kinninment, E. (2001) “Experiments in the Design of 1:100 000 Scale Topographic Mapping for Great Britain” The Cartographic Journal 38 (1) pp.25–40

Fremlin, G. and Robinson, A.H. (1998) “Maps as Mediated Seeing” Cartographica Monograph 51

Freundschuh, S. (1990) “Can Young Children Use Maps to Navigate?” Cartographica 27 (1) pp.54–66

Fridl, J. (2004) “National Atlas of Slovenia: Current Trends and Future Opportunities” The Cartographic Journal 41 (2) pp.167–176

Frutiger, A. (1998) Signs and Symbols: Their Design and Meaning London: Ebury Press

G    back

Gage, J. (1999) Colour and Meaning: Art, Science and Symbolism London: Thames and Hudson

Gerber, R.V. (1981) “Competence and Performance in Cartographic Language” The Cartographic Journal 18 (2) pp.104–111

Goode, J.P. (1927) “The Map as a Record of Progress in Geography” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 17 (1) pp.1–14

Goodenough, W., Winterbotham, H.S.L., Jack, E.M. and Withycombe, J.G. (1929) “Lettering on Maps: Discussion” The Geographical Journal 73 (5) pp.435–446

Goodenough, W., MacLeod, C., McCaw, G.T., Hinks, A.R. and Winterbotham, H.S.L. (1933) “The Use of the New Grid on Ordnance Survey Maps: Discussion” The Geographical Journal 82 (1) pp.47–54

Green, E. and Green, R. (1971) “Place Names and Dialects in Massachusetts: Some Contemporary Patterns” Names 19 pp.240–251

Grothenn, D. (1994) “Einheitliche Gestaltung der amtlichen topographischen Kartenwerke in Europa?” Kartographische Nachrichten 44(1), pp.1–6

H    back

Hall, S. (1997) The Work of Representation In Hall, S. (Ed.) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices London: Sage

Hall, S. (1999) Culture, Community, Nation In Boswell, D. and Evans, J. (Eds.) Representing the Nation: A Reader London: Routledge

Häberling, C. (2003) Topographische 3D-Karten: Thesen für Gestaltungsgrundsätze. Dissertation, ETH, Zürich,

Hake, G., Grünreich, D., Meng, L. (2002) Kartographie, 8. vollst. Neu bearb. Und erw. Auflage: Visualisierung raum-zeitlicher Informationen. Berlin-New York: Walter de Gruyter

Harbeck, R. (2000) “Eine geographische Basis für Europa – Utopie, Vision, Wirklichkeit” Kartographische Nachrichten 50(3), pp.103–112.

Hallisey, E.J. (2005) “Cartographic Visualization: An Assessment and Epistemological Review” The Professional Geographer 57 (3) pp.350–364

Harley, J.B. (1975) Ordnance Survey Maps: A Descriptive Manual Southampton: Ordnance Survey

Harley, J.B. (1988) Maps, Knowledge, and Power In Cosgrove, D.E. and Daniels, S. (Eds.) The Iconography of Landscape: Essays on the Symbolic Representation, Design and Use of Past Environments Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Harley, J.B. (1988) “Silences and Secrecy: the Hidden Agenda of Cartography in Early Modern Europe” Imago Mundi 40 pp.57–76

Harley, J.B. (1989) “Deconstructing the Map” Cartographica 26 (2) pp.1–20

Harley, J.B. (1990) “Cartography, Ethics, and Social Theory” Cartographica 27 (1) pp.1–23

Harley, J.B. (1991) “Can There Be a Cartographic Ethics?” Cartographic Perspectives 10 pp.9–16

Harley, J.B. (2002) The New Nature of Maps Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press

Harrison, R.E. (1959) “Art and Common Sense in Cartography” Surveying and Mapping 19 (1) pp.27–38

Harvey, P.D.A. (1980) The History of Topographical Maps: Symbols, Pictures and Surveys London: Thames & Hudson

Head, C.G. (1984) “The Map as Natural Language: A Paradigm for Understanding” Cartographica Monograph 31 pp.1–31

Heffernan, M. (2002) “The Politics of the Map in the Early Twentieth Century” Cartography and Geographic Information Science 29 (3) pp.207–226

Helgerson, R. (1986) “The Land Speaks: Cartography, Chorography, and Subversion in Renaissance England” Representations 16 pp.50–85

Herb, G.H. (1997) Under the Map of Germany: Nationalism and Propaganda 1918–1945 London: Routledge

Hodgkiss, A.G. (1981) Understanding Maps: A Systematic History of Their Use and Development Folkestone: Wm Dawson & Son

Hodson, Y. (2005) “Coloured Roads on Ordnance Survey First Edition 1:2500 Plans and One-Inch Maps 1897–1935, and the Rights Of Way Disclaimer” The Cartographic Journal 42 (2) pp.85–110

Holdich, T., Burrard, S.G., Herbertson, P., Hedley, W.C., Davis, W.M., Purey-Cust, A., Stanford, W., Beckit, H.O. and Lyons, H.G. (1914) “Relief in Cartography: Discussion” The Geographical Journal 43 (4) pp.398–407

Horton, J., Armstrong, S.C., Hedges, K., Kraftl, P., Marshall, C., Matthews, H. and Pilkington, A. (2006) “Mapped Out: Free Maps for 11-Year-Olds Overview of Findings, 2000–2006” (Research Paper Presented to Ordnance Survey) Available at: (Accessed 22nd March 2007)

Horvat, S., Železnjak, Ž. and Lapain, M. (2003) “Military Topographic and Cartographic System of the Republic of Croatia” Kartografija i Geoinformacije 2 pp.74–85

Hüttermann, A. (2001) “Topographische Karten – lesen und verstehen” Kartographische Nachrichten 51(5), pp.251–254

I    back

Illert, A. (2000) “Auf dem Weg zur Europäischen Topographischen Datenbank” Kartographische Nachrichten 50(3), pp.112–119.

Illert, A. (2001). “Kooperation der amtlichen Kartographie in Europa – Projekte, Partnerschaften und Produkte” In J. Dodt & W. Herzog (Eds.), Kartographisches Taschenbuch 2001
(pp. 35–49). Bonn: Kirschbaum Verlag

Illert, A., Afflerbach, S. (2006) “Das Produkt vieler Köche, ansprechend serviert – Kartographische Aufgaben bei der Einrichtung der nationalen und internationalen Geodateninfrastrukturen” Kartographische Nachrichten 56(4), pp.179–184

Imhof, E. (1982) Cartographic Relief Presentation (trans. Steward, H.J.) Berlin: Walter de Gruyter

J    back

Jägomagi, J. and Mardiste, H. (1994) “Maps and Mapping in Estonia” GeoJournal 33 (1) pp.81–90

Jordan, P. (1979) Das Problem der weltweiten Signaturvereinheitlichung in der Kartographie. Dissertation, Wien

Jordan, P. (2004) “National and Regional Atlases as an Expression of National/Regional Identities: New Examples from Post-Communist Europe” The Cartographic Journal 41 (2) pp.150–166

K    back

Karssen, A.J. (1980) “The Artistic Elements in Map Design” The Cartographic Journal 17 (2) pp.124-127

Keates, J.S. (1972) “Symbols and Meaning in Topographic Maps” International Yearbook of Cartography 12 pp.168–181

Keates, J.S. (1996) Understanding Maps (2nd ed.) Harlow: Longman

Kent, R.B. (1986) “National Atlases: the Influence of Wealth and Political Orientation on Content” Geography 71 (2) pp.122–130

Kent, R.B. and Tobias, T.J. (1990) “State Atlases: Funding Sources and Thematic Content” The Professional Geographer 42 (3) pp.313–323

Kent, A.J. (2005) “Aesthetics: A Lost Cause in Cartographic Theory?” The Cartographic Journal 42 (2) pp.182–188

Kent, A.J. (2007) “An Analysis of the Cartographic Language of European State Topographic Maps: Aesthetics, Style, and Identity” (Ph.D. thesis) University of Kent

King, R. (1990) “Visions of the World and the Language of Maps” Trinity Papers in Geography 1 pp.1–10

Kinninment, E. (1997) “A Proposal for a 1:100,000 Scale Topographic Map Series of Great Britain – A Comparative Study” (M.Sc. thesis) University of Glasgow

Knowles, R. and Stowe, P.W.E. (1982) Western Europe in Maps: Topographical Map Studies Harlow: Longman

Kostelnick, J.C., Dobson, J.E., Egbert, S.L., Dunbar, M.D. and Arnold, A. (2006) “A Proposed New World Standard for Humanitarian Demining Map Symbols” (Paper presented at the 26th ESRI International User Conference, San Diego, 27th–11th August, 2006) Available at: (Accessed 21st November 2006)

Kraak, M. and Ormeling, F. (1996) Cartography: Visualization of Spatial Data Harlow: Longman

Kress, G. and van Leeuwen, T. (1996) Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design London: Routledge

Kretschmer, I. (1991) “The Mapping of Austria in the Twentieth Century” Imago Mundi 43 pp.9–20

Krygier, J.B. (1995) “Cartography as an Art and a Science?” The Cartographic Journal 32 (1) pp.3–10

Küchler, A.W. (1951) “The Relation between Classifying and Mapping Vegetation” Ecology 32 (2) pp.275–283

L    back

Land, N. (2003) “The Role of the National Mapping Agencies in Building Europe’s Spatial Data Infrastructure” (Paper presented at the Working Week of the International Federation of Surveyors, Paris, 13th–17th April 2003) Available at: (Accessed 20th October 2006)

Larsgaard, M.L. (1984) Topographic Mapping of the Americas, Australia, and New Zealand Littleton, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited

Larsgaard, M.L. (1993) Topographic Mapping of Africa, Antarctica and Eurasia Provo, Utah: Western Association of Map Libraries

Lawrence, V. (2004) “The Role of National Mapping Organizations” The Cartographic Journal 41 (2) pp.117–122

Leigh, D. (2006) “Revealed: Secret Locations We Knew About Anyway” Available at:,,1838757,00.html (Accessed 22nd March 2007)

Lilley, R.J. (2007) “Who Needs Cartographers?” The Cartographic Journal 44 (3) pp.202–208

Lothian, A. (1999) “Landscape and the Philosophy of Aesthetics: Is Landscape Quality Inherent in the Landscape or in the Eye of the Beholder?” Landscape and Urban Planning 44 pp.177–198

Lyons, H.G. (1914) “Relief in Cartography” The Geographical Journal 43 (3) pp.233–248

Lyons, H.G. (1914) “Relief in Cartography (Continued)” The Geographical Journal 43 (4) pp.395–398

M    back

MacEachren, A.M. (1995) How Maps Work: Representation, Visualization, and Design New York: Guilford Press

Mason, A. (1998) “Mapping Home: Communities Discover the Language of Cartography” Canadian Geographic 118 (6) pp.58–63

Mastra, I.D.R. and Brown, M.H. (1981) “Proposed Specifications for the New 1:50,000 Topographic Map Series of Indonesia” Cartographica 18 (3) pp.66–73

Matless, D. (1999) The Uses of Cartographic Literacy: Mapping, Survey and Citizenship in Twentieth-Century Britain In Cosgrove, D. (Ed.) Mappings London: Reaktion Books

Matthes, F.E. (1912) “Topology, Topography, and Topometry” Bulletin of the American Geographical Society 44 (5) pp.334–339

McGrath, G. (1966) “The Representation of Vegetation on Topographic Maps” The Cartographic Journal 2 (2) pp.87–89

Meine, K. (1972) “Considerations on the State of Development with Regard to Topographic Maps of the Different Countries of the Earth” International Yearbook of Cartography 12 pp.182–200

Miller, A. (1992) “Everywhere and Nowhere: the Making of the National Landscape” American Literary History 4 (2) pp.207–229

Ministry of Defence (1965) Textbook of Topographical Surveying (4th ed.) London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office (HMSO)

Monmonier, M. (1982) “Cartography, Geographic Information, and Public Policy” Journal of Geography in Higher Education 6 (2) pp.99–107

Montello, D.R., Sullivan, C.N. and Pick, H.L. (1994) “Recall Memory for Topographic Maps and Natural Terrain: Effects of Experience and Task Performance” Cartographica 31 (3) pp.18–36

Morrison, J.L. (1995) “What is the Status of Worldwide Topographic Mapping in the Twenty-First Century?” Proceedings of the Cambridge Conference for National Mapping Organizations Session A pp.1–8

Murdoch, P. (1758) “Of the Best Form of Geographical Maps” Philosophical Transactions (1683–1775) 50 pp.553–568

N    back

Neudeck, S. (2001) Zur Gestaltung topographischer Karten für die Bildschirmvisualisierung. München: Universität der Bundeswehr.

Neumann, J. (1997) Encyclopedic Dictionary of Cartography in 25 Languages (2nd ed.) München: K.G. Saur

Newbigin, M.I. (1913) Ordnance Survey Maps: Their Meaning and Use W. & A.K. Johnston: Edinburgh

North, G.W. (1990) “Cartographic Glasnost” Meridian 5 pp.7–34

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Oberhummer, E. (1909) “The Development of Map-Making in Austria” (trans. Stein, R.) Bulletin of the American Geographical Society 41 (8) pp.492–496

Olson, E.C. and Whitmarsh, A. (1944) Foreign Maps New York: Harper & Brothers

Ordnance Survey (2002) “Branding and Marketing of the Ordnance Survey Small-Scale Map Portfolio” The Cartographic Journal 39 (2) pp.171–174

Ottosson, T. (1988) “What Does it Take to Read a Map?” Cartographica 24 (4) pp.28–35

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Parker, C. (2004) “Research Challenges for a Geo-Information Business” The Cartographic Journal 41 (2) pp.131–141

Parry, R.B. and Perkins, C.R. (2000) World Mapping Today (2nd ed.) London: Bowker-Saur

Petrovic, D. (2006) “Quality Evaluation of the National Topographic Map 1:50,000” Geodetski Vestnik 50 (3) pp.425–438

Pickles, J. (2004) Cartographic Reason: Mapping and the Geo-Coded World London: Routledge

Piket, J.J.C. (1972) “Five European Topographic Maps: A Contribution to the Classification of Topographic Maps and Their Relation to Other Map Types” Geografisch Tijdschrift 6 (3) pp.266–276

Platt, R.R. (1945) “Official Topographic Maps: A World Index” Geographical Review 35 (2) pp.175–181

Postnikov, A.V. (2002) “Maps for Ordinary Consumers Versus Maps for the Military: Double Standards of Map Accuracy in Soviet Cartography, 1917–1991” Cartography and Geographic Information Science 29 (3) pp.243–260

Purdon, W.H. (1859) “On the Trigonometrical Survey and Physical Configuration of the Valley of Kashmir” The Geographical Journal 4 (1) pp.31–33

R    back

Rees, R. (1980) “Historical Links between Cartography and Art” Geographical Review 70 (1) pp.61–78

Revell, P. (2005) “Seeing the Wood from the Trees: Generalising OS Mastermap® Tree Coverage Polygons to Woodland at 1:50 000 Scale” (Paper presented at the 8th ICA Workshop on Generalization and Multiple Representation, A Coruña, 7th–8th July, 2005) Available at: (Accessed 3rd October 2006)

Rhind, D. and Taylor, D.R.F. (Eds.) (1989) Cartography Past, Present, and Future London: Elsevier

Rhind, D. (2000) “Current Shortcomings of Global Mapping and the Creation of a New Geographical Framework for the World” The Geographical Journal 166 (4) pp.295–305

Robinson, A.H. (1952) The Look of Maps: An Examination of Cartographic Design Madison: University of Wisconsin Press

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